Research Achievements

Crop Improvement Germplasm Status

Crop Total number Crop Total number
Tomato 1250 Bottle gourd  145
Brinjal 295 Pointed gourd  160
Chilli 295 Ivy gourd  26
Okra 245 Pumpkin  423
Pea 425 Ash gourd  293
Cauliflower 48 Muskmelon   629
Radish 45 Cucumber  104
Carrot 25 Ridge gourd  68
Cowpea 217 Sponge gourd   93
French bean 136 Bitter gourd 230 
Dolichos bean 129 Sathputia   09

 

Germplasm Registered for Their Unique Triaits

Crop Genotype Trait Registration number
Bitter gourd Gy263B Gynoceism INGR No. 03037
Pointed gourd IIVRPG-105 Parthenocarpy INGR No. 03035
Chilli BS35 PepLCV resistance INGR No. 07039
Okra No.315 Dwarf and short internodes INGR No. 05026
Pumpkin SA90 High carotenoids INGR No. 05027
Snap melon B159 Downy mildew resistance INGR No. 07044
Tomato F6050 Joint-less peduncle INGR No. 06036
Tomato F7028 High lycopene content INGR No. 06037

 

Varieties/hybrids developed

  • Gene expression profiling for drought tolerance were done using EC520061 as tolerant and CO-3 as susceptible line, 165 genes found exclusively up-regulated in tolerant plants against drought stress, while 380 genes were found up –regulated in susceptible plants, The genes from different pathways responsible for abiotic stress tolerance were selected for further proteomics studies.
  • Gene expression profiling for heat tolerance were done using PS-1 as tolerant and H-24 as susceptible line, 32 genes found exclusively up-regulated in tolerant plants against heat stress, while 244 genes were found up–regulated in susceptible plants.
  • Six varieties of brinjal have been transformed with Cry1Ac through back cross for fruit and shoot borer (FSB) resistance.
  • Fruit and shoot borer (EFSB) resistant transgenic line of brinjal var. IVBL-9 has been developed utilizing Cry1Ac gene by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The lines are in T5 generation for event selection.
  • Fruit borer resistant transgenic line of Tomato var. H-86 has been developed utilizing Cry1Ac gene by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The lines are in T5 generation for event selection,
  • In brinjal, RAPD markers viz., OPE022000 for hybrid Kashi Sandesh, OPJ121000 for hybrid Kashi Komal, and OPU191700 for hybrid VR-3 have been found to be male parent specific, and are being used for hybrid seed purity testing.
  • Three RAPD markers, OPC051000 (male sex associated), OPC14400 (female sex associated) and OPN011030 (absent in parthenocarpic line) have been identified, which together can reliably identify the staminate, pistillate, and parthenocarpic types of T. dioica.
  • In-vitro multiplication protocol has been developed for Trichosanthes for large scale multiplication of elite materials.
  • H-88-78-1 and EC-520861 of tomato were identified as resistant source for both early blight and TLCV.
  • Cytoplasmic and nuclear male sterile lines have been developed in chilli, which is being utilized in developing cost effective hybrids.
  • Two previously known RAPD markers (OPW19800 and OPP131400) associated with Rf gene were tested in 47 restorer and maintainer lines of Capsicum annuum (chilli and sweet pepper). Both these markers were found useful for genetic purity testing of cms-based commercial hybrid CCH-2.
  • In bitter gourd, gynoecious line (Gy263B) was identified and characterized, which is expected to be of immense use in heterosis breeding. Inheritance of gynoecism was examined and found to be under the control of single recessive gene.
  • Petha Preparaption technology has been standardized and suitable variety and hybrids of ash gourd has been recommended for petha preparation. Protocol of by-product i.e. Vari and Tilori has been standardized.
  • Priming of carrot seeds with 150 ppm KNO3 retained its germination for a year as compared to other treatments and control.

Crop Production

Nursery management:

Technology for nursery management was standardized involving soil solarization, seed treatment and shade/agro nets. Solarization of nursery beds by covering with transparent polythene (200 gauge) for 5-6 weeks and seed treatment with Trichoderma viridae (@ 4g/kg seeds) gave good control of diseases. During seedling growth, when temperature is more than 30 °C, covering of seed beds with shade/agro nets (50 or 60 % shade) at 1 m height with suitable support reduces seedling mortality due to heat scorching. Besides, agro nets also help in control of insects, particularly insect vectors that spread viral diseases.

Enhancing water use efficiency:

  • The highest fruit yield of tomato cv. Avinash-2 (1222.13 q/ha) and water use efficiency (58.06 q/ha-cm) was recorded with drip irrigation at 100% ET (Evapotranspiration) coupled with black polythene mulch.
  • Furrow irrigated raised bed planting (FIRB) in tomato (Kashi Vishesh) saved 36% water over flat system. This system along with paddy straw mulch is able to save about 49% water with 55% increase in fruit yield over absolute control.
  • In tomato cv. Kashi Vishesh, the maximum WUE (9.42 q/ha-cm) was achieved with alternate furrow irrigation (AFI) + black polythene mulching. Black polythene and transparent polythene saved 33.7% and 20% water, respectively over ‘no mulch’.
  • In okra c.v. Kashi Pragati, the maximum WUE of 602.73 kg/ha-cm was obtained with irrigation at 10 days intervals coupled with pea straw mulching (@7.5 t/ha) About 30% water could be saved in okra during summer with pea straw mulching as compared to unmulched control.

Integrated plant nutrient management:

  • Tomato: Maximum yield (557.30 q/ha) can be obtained in cv. Kashi Vishesh by the application of poultry manure@ 5t/ha + NPK (60:30:40kg/ha).
  • Cowpea: Application of FYM @ 10t/ha + NPK (30:30:30 kg/ha) + PSB (seed treatment @ 20g/kg seed) in cv. Kashi Kanchan was observed to produce maximum number of branches/plant and number of fruits per plants and gave higher yield (13.2 t/ha).
  • Bottle gourd: The maximum yield (40.7 t/ha)can be achieved in cv. Kashi Ganga with application of vermicompost @ 2.5 t/ha + ½ recommended NPK + micronutrient mixture (ZnSO4 @ 0.3%, Borax @ 0.2 % and ammonium molybdate @ 0.08%).

Nutrient use efficiency:

  • Tomato: Maximum yield (52.4 t/ha) and nitrogen use efficiency (0.23 t/kg N) in cv. Kashi Vishesh was achieved by treating seedlings with biofertlizer (Azotobacter @2% solution) + raising them on raised beds + foliar spray of water soluble fertilizers (N:P:K 19:19:19 @ 0.5%) + foliar application of micronutrient mixture (Borax 0.2% and ZnSO4 0.5%) + plastic mulching.
  • Cabbage: Maximum yield (64.7 t/ha) and nitrogen use efficiency (0.28 t/kg N) in cv. Rare ball was achieved by treating seedlings with biofertlizer (Azotobacter @2% solution) + raising them on raised beds + foliar spray of water soluble fertilizers (N:P:K 19:19:19 @ 0.5%) + foliar application of micronutrient mixture (Borax 0.2% and ZnSO4 0.5%) + plastic mulching.
  • Cowpea: Maximum yield (12.18 t/ha) and nitrogen use efficiency (0.15 t/kg N) in cv. Kashi Kanchan was achieved by seed treatment with biofertlizer (Rhizobium @2% solution) + raising them on ridges + foliar spray of water soluble fertilizers (N:P:K 19:19:19 @ 0.5%) + foliar application of micronutrient mixture (Borax 0.2% and ZnSO4 0.5%) + plastic mulching
  • Okra: Maximum yield (14.27 t/ha) and nitrogen use efficiency (0.099 t/kg N) in cv. Kashi Pragati was achieved by seed treatment with biofertlizer (Azotobacter @2% solution) + raising them on ridges + foliar spray of water soluble fertilizers (N:P:K 19:19:19 @ 0.5%) + foliar application of micronutrient mixture (Borax 0.2% and ZnSO4 0.5%) + plastic mulching.

Organic vegetable production:

  • Application of poultry manure @ 7.5 t/ha recorded 28-35 % higher yield with 17-25% higher vitamin-C content in cabbage, cauliflower, tomato, okra and cowpea as compared to the inorganic management system receiving 100% recommended dose of NPK through chemical fertilizers.

Micronutrients in vegetable crops:

  • Okra: Two foliar sprays of Zn (@200 ppm) or B (@ 5 ppm) at 30 and 45 DAS increased the pod yield by 28% and 23%, respectively in okra cv. Kashi Pragati.
  • French bean: In c.v. Swarn Priya, foliar sprays of Zn (50 ppm), Cu (5 ppm) and B (5 ppm) exhibited significantly higher seed yield (20-25 %) over control. A significant increase in Vitamin A and Vitamin C content (25-45%) in French bean pods was achieved with two sprays of these micronutrients.
  • Cowpea: A significant increase in vitamin content (Vitamin A-35 to 54% and Vitamin C-20 to 42 %) and pod yield (18-35%) in cowpea c.v. Kashi Kanchan was achieved with two foliar sprays of Zn (200 ppm)/ Fe (200 ppm)/ B (20 ppm)/ and Mo (10 ppm).

Tillage and residue management in vegetable production:

  • Yield potential up to 114.5 and 363.5 q/ha was demonstrated to be achievable in cowpea and tomato crops, respectively, with zero tillage on permanent ridges and residue retention. The savings in input costs and energy use in cowpea-tomato cropping system were Rs. 18,394/ha/yr and 9626 MJ/ha/yr, respectively with  ....................
  • ZT on permanent ridges and residue retention. About 60 L/ha/yr of fuel could also be saved with zero tillage.

Nutrient profiling of major vegetables:

  • Variability of some important antioxidants and minerals were analyzed in between and within the crucifer accessions. Total carbohydrate content ranged between 2.54-4.03g/100g, protein from 0.41-3.57 % of fresh weight, fiber content ranged between 2.54-4.03g/100g, protein from 0.41-3.57 % of fresh weight, fiber content ranged from 0.60 to 3.62 g/100g, Vitamin C content ranged from 22.16-82.14 mg /100g and b-carotene ranged from 1.56 to 9.09 mg/100g fresh weight. In general kale, broccoli and Brussels sprouts ranked high in their antioxidant capacity containing significant amounts of Vitamin C and b-carotene.

Post-harvest and Value Addition

Green chilli powder

  • The process for antioxidant rich green chilli powder was standardized with selection of suitable additives in blanching process followed by osmotic diffusion in salt solution and drying
  • The dried and blended green chilli powder can be preserved for 10-12 months at room temp without any significant alteration in vitamin C, green colour and pungency.

Ready-to-eat vegetable chips

  • The technology for the manufacture of ready-to-eat bitter gourd, pointed gourd and ivy gourd chips was standardized by cooking the vegetables in boiling water followed by osmotic diffusion treatment in NaCl solution and drying. The dried vegetables are the fried in refined oil at 160-180°C for 3-5 sec.

Osmo-air drying of vegetables

  • The process for osmo-air drying of dried bitter gourd, ivy gourd, pointed gourd, cauliflower and broccoli was standardized after blanching treatment in permitted additives to minimize the green color discoloration followed by osmotic diffusion treatment in NaCl solution and drying. The dried vegetables attained good rehydration and sensory properties and remained acceptable  for 8-10 months at room temperature.

Shelf life extension

  • In tomatoes at breaking stage of harvest, extension in shelf life up to 40-50 days was achieved when stored in polypropylene pouches at room temperature. Whereas, shelf life of 30 days in capsicum and 25 days in chillies was achieved when stored in polypropylene pouches under refrigerated conditions (8-10°C).

Crop Protection

Brinjal

  •  Brinjal shoot and fruit borer (BSFB) can be managed by selection of oblong/small fruited cluster bearing varieties and hybrids, installing sex pheromone baited plastic funnel trap at 10 m distance from 20 DAT, the pheromone septa should be changed at 45 days interval, along with clean cultivation through clipping of infested shoot with larvae inside at weekly interval from 15 DAT until the shoot infestation is lost and removal of freshly damaged fruits at each harvest. In case of severe infestation need based foliar spray of neem seed kernal extract (4%) may be given.
  • Intercropping of brinjal (2 rows) with coriander (one row) or fennel (1 row) minimizes the incidence of brinjal shoot and fruit borer.
  • Seed treatment with imidacloprid @ 2.5g/kg reduces the leafhopper and little leaf incidence.
  • Spraying carbendazim @ 0.1% gave good control of Phomopsis blight.
  • Seed treatment with captan @ 0.25% and soil treatment with Trichoderma powder @ 5kg/ha gave good control against damping off.
  • Soil drenching twice with Trichoderma @ 1% near collar region provided protection against collar rot and wilt diseases.

Tomato

  • Planting of 2 rows of African marigold as trap crop with every 14 rows of tomato along with, installation of H armigera pheromone traps @ 4/ha to monitor the initial attack of pest, innundative release of Trichogramma brassiliensis @ 2, 50,000 parasitized eggs/ha at 10 days interval at the beginning of flowering and fruiting and spray of Ha NPV @ 350 LE/ha twice after flowering can manage the fruit borer. Use of synthetic pyrethroids and endosulfan alternatively with NSKE (4%) is effective against fruit borer.
  • Marigold was also identified as suitable intercrop/border crop for leafminers as well as fruit borer management apart from harboring activity of major parasitoid of leafminer Neochrysocharis Formosa, the fruit borer parasitoids Microplitis sp, Cotesia sp., Campoletis chlorideae and a polyembryonic parasitoid, Copidosoma sp.
  • Seed treatment with imidacloprid, netting of nursery, spray 4% NSKE minimize whitefly population, TLCV and leaf miner incidence. Pre transplanting application of imidacloprid @ 0.3 ml/lit in nursery protects the newly planted crop from whitefly infestation.
  • Soil application of neem cake @ 100g +Trichoderma@10g/ sq.m in nursery bed controlled post - emergence damping off completely.
  • Summer ploughing, green manuring with sunhemp/ dhaincha, application of Trichoderma powder @ 5 kg/ha and soil drenching twice with T. viride @ 1% controlled wilt disease.
  • Single spray of copper oxychloride@ 0.3% in kharif and mancozeb@ 0.25% in winter gave good control against early blight.
  • Alternaria blightappears in 11th standard meteorological week( SMW) at diurnal temperature 14.3-32.10 C and progressed maximum in 14th SMW at an avg. temperature of 24.70C.

Chilli

  • The mite infestation in early crop growth phase reduces the yield to a greater extent.
  • At cellular level, the difference in damage symptoms caused by mites and thrips were established.
  • Actinomycetes, a bacterium (Gram negative) a fungus A. phytoseid predator Amblyseius sp. and anthocorid bug (Orius Sp) was found frequently associated with P. latus. Actinomycetes and bacteria caused mortality to the extent 20%.
  • The Desirable varieties/lines with higher tolerance index were identified as Japanese longi, NEC, VR 338, G-4, PBC-535 and VNS-4.
  • Chlorfenapyr @ 1.5 ml/l, abamectin @ 1.5 ml/l and spiromesifen @ 0.75 ml/l were found highly effective against yellow mite and thrips in chilli.
  • Soil application of neem cake @ 100g and Trichoderma@10 g/m2 in nursery followed by seed treatment with carbendazim @ 2.5 g/kg of seed controlled damping off.
  • 2 sprays of flusilazole @ 0.1% gave a good control of anthracnose
  • Seedling dip in imidacloprid @ 0.25% solution for 30 minute followed by seedling dip in Trichoderma @ 1% for 10 minutes gave protection against soil borne pathogen and whitefly .
  • Die-back and anthracnose:Colletotrichum capsici infection initiated from last week of September and progressed to 3rd week of October. 22-320 C, >90% RH with rainfall are the predisposing factors.
Okra
  • June first week sowing is most ideal to avoid the damage of shoot and fruit borer damage during rainy season.
  • Seed treatment with imidacloprid @ 3 g/kg protects the crop from jassid damage upto 50-60 days of sowing.
  • Three sprays of neem formulation @ 2.5 ml/lit + endosulfan in half of the recommended dose during post flowering period at 49, 61 and 73 DAS were effective and safer combination for controlling fruit borer.
  • Foliar spraying of dicofol @ 2.5ml/l and wettable Sulphur (0.2%) alternatively at 10 days interval effectively controls spider mite.
  • Rove beetle, Paederus varicornis is identified as an important predator of jassids.
  • 2-3 foliar spray of difenconazole or hexaconazole @ 0.05% gave appreciable protection against leaf spot and powdery mildew diseases.
  • Tolerant varieties to YVMV like VRO-5 and VRO-6 should be used.
  • Seed treatment with carbendazim @ 0.3% should be done for good establishment of the seedlings.
Cole Crops
  • Chinese cabbage was identified as an ideal trap crop against DBM in cabbage and cauliflower crop.
  • Diamondback moth population in cabbage can be managed by growing paired mustard rows with every 25 cabbage rows. The first row of mustard should be sown 15 days before and second 25 days after cabbage planting. Dichlorovos 0.1% is sprayed at weekly interval on the mustard to kill the trapped DBM larvae. If required NSKE (5%) may be sprayed to control the larval population in main crop.
  • Sowing of coriander as border crop and foliar spray of entomopathogenic fungal (Verticillium lecani) formulation @ 500 g/ha at 10 days interval is most effective in the management of cabbage aphid.
  • Spray of Bt formulations (Delfin®/Dipel®) @ 500 g/ha at 35 and 50 days after planting were found effective against DBM in cabbage.
  • The Spodoptera litura in early cauliflower and cabbage can be managed by hand removal and destruction of egg masses followed by three foliar spray of SlNPV @ 300 LE/ha mixed with sticker (0.05%) and jaggery (2%) at an interval of 10 days. NPV spraying should be done at early morning and late evening to reduce the adverse effect of UV irradiation on NPV solution.
  • Nursery application of neem cake @100g/m2 and seed soaking in streptocycline @100 ppm protected the damping off and bacterial rot pathogens.
  • Removal of lower leaves in the morning, burning them and a subsequent spray of mancozeb @ 0.25% along with a sticker @ 0.1% gave a good control against Alternaria leaf spot.
Cucurbits
  • Fruit fly can be managed through mass trapping of adult males using mineral water bottle traps (25-30 traps/ha) baited with cuelure (1 part), ethyl alcohol (6 parts) and carbaryl (2 parts) saturated wood blocks at 15 mt distance from trap to trap coinciding with initiation of flowering along with bait spray containing 10% molasses and 0.2% carbaryl applied in one plant per 100 m2 area.
  • Food bait consisting of rotten banana /pumpkin pulp (1000g) + yeast (10 g) + malathion (10 ml) + citric acid (3 g) may be used in flat earthen pot to attract and kill the adult fruit flies.
  • Bait spray containing 20 ml malathion (50 EC) + 20 liters water +500 g molasses attract adult flies and control the population.
  • Spraying of carbaryl 50 WP @ 2 g/lit at cotyledon stage control red pumpkin beetles.
Pea
  • 2 foliar sprays of penconazole@0.05% or flusilazole @0.1% gave a good control against powdery mildew disease.